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This was the top predator of the land in the carboniferous swamps. Inaccuracies- There's 3 key things wrong with with ARK's pulmonscorpius.
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It's extremely bulky, giving it a look similar to the emperor scorpion. In reality it was alot more thin looking similar to many desert scorpions. It also for some reason has venom glands in its pincers, a trait no scorpions have. It's like 10x the size of the real animal. At 8ft long it was also the largest of the massive bugs that appeared at the time. Arthropleura is mostly known from its tracks rather than actual skeletal remains.
The skeletal remains we do have of it, are not its head, so the mystery remains as to whether this creature was a carnivore or a herbivore. This creature was a giant that roamed the carboniferous swamps, with its only potential predators being the large amphibians that roam the waters of arthropleura's swamp home. Inaccuracies- ARK's version is a fairly poor representation of the real creature. First off, the ARK's version is nearly 30ft long, a good 4x larger than the real species. Second, it most likely did not spit acid, as modern millipedes can't exactly do that either.
Third, in ARK it is a cave creature, which once again arthropleura probably was not. It would have been more appropriate to make it spawn in the swamp biome. Meganeura, despite looking like a dragonfly, was actually a griffinfly, an ancient family of insects that is thought to be the ancestors of dragonflies and damselflies. It was also almost identical to modern dragonflies, only being massive. These griffinflies were the king of the carboniferous skies before the pterosaurs or birds evolved. Inaccuracies- To keep it simple, it's hard to screw up a griffinfly, being very similar to a dragonfly.
The only issue is, since modern dragonflies and damselflies lack venom, it's doubted meganeura was capable of being venomous. The species was extremely diverse, taking a variety of sizes depending on species and hunting a massive variety of prey, from small fish to reptiles its size. This large variety of prey is due to one special adaptation never seen before, differently shaped teeth. It has molars and incisors, which are used to either slice or crush prey. This characteristic is usually only seen in mammals. Dimetrodon's other fancy adaptation is its sail. It was most likely used as communication between individuals.
Inaccuracies- ARK's dimetrodon is a bit wierd. The main problem with its appearance is the 2 small fins coming out of its sides. This is one of the few ark creatures which have these wierd appendages, giving it a "swamp monster" look. It's main use is also rather bizarre. Dimetrodon most likely did not give off hot or cold air While most of its body is salamander in nature, it's the head that raises the most eyebrows.
The head has a pair of plane like "wings" which give the head a boomerang shape. Trace fossils of the species suggest that, unlike in most reconstructions, the head is not free. The "wings" were used to support a flap of skin which connected to the body, giving the creature a more streamline shape. The use for this is unknown, but it was most likely used to aid in swimming, allowing it to glide through the water much easier.
It lived a mostly aquatic lifestyle like most amphibians, hunting small fish and other organisms in the murky water. Inaccuracies- ARK's diplocaulus have several issues associated with it. Second, the head is free as in most popular reconstructions, instead of attached to the rest of the body via skin. Third, it is highly unlikely the thing was a living oxygen bag. They are fairly brutish looking for a mammal-like reptile, with thick skulls that were most likely used in head butting matches with one another.
Innacuracies- ARK's moschops, aesthetically speaking, is actually one of the most accurate animals in the game, both in terms of anatomy and size. The only downfall, however, is its function in the game. Moschops is a herbivore so most likely would not eat meat, metal, or any other kind of herbivore-inedible substance.
It's distinguished by its extrmely boxy head, which actually appears triangular when looking up above. While often depicted with fur, such therapsids having fur is purely speculation. Its diet is one of the most controversial things about the animal, as while its teeth were fairly blunt, suggesting it was a herbivore, the lack of back grinding teeth makes the idea seem not likely either.
Innacuracies- Purlovia is one of the most obscure species in ARK, but it still has some concrete features which are not in the game. It is oversized, being larger than the smilodon, and also has an oval shaped head. Lystrosaurus was one of the animals that was most advantagous to this lack of competition. Lystrosaurus at this time literally took up half of all animal life on Earth, being one of the most widely distrubted species at this time.
It was also decently sized for its time There was plenty of greenery and a suprising rarity of predators, making expansion cross the planet relatively easy. Inaccuracies- I could not find anything wrong with it despite the fact that the bloody thing can backflip, and that's too awesome to say anything wrong about. Many forms of media potray it as a relatively small animal with a frill similar to a frilled lizard and venomous capabilities.
This, however, was not true. Dilophosaurus was actually a large at the time really carnivore, the size of a polar bear. It also, as far as we know, lacked frills and venom. It's exact niche in it's enviroment has been debated since its discovery. It was originally known as a fiercesome top predator, but careful looks at its skull revealed that it had a very weak jaw structure, meaning that if it tried to bite a large prey item it would most likely have its teeth ripped out of their sockets So it was then thought to be just a large scavenger, but that would be impractical in an environment where dilophosaurus was the largest carnivorous animal in its enviroment.
Then, more looks at its skull showed the answer.
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It had conical teeth and a ridge just before the end of its top jaw. These are characteristics that would be perfect for a fish eating animal. Conical teeth garuntee no escape and the ridge adds that extra layer of prevention. It's half of the size of the real life animal and has the distinctive fake frill and venomous spit.
Besides that the main problem with the animal is its skull, which is boxy rather than long. They took on a variety of diets from eating fish to insects. Dimorphodon was in the insect category. It's beleived to live near the English coastlines feeding on insects. Inaccuracies- ARK's dimorphodon has two main things wrong with it. First off, it has the wierd spike on the crown of its head which would not be present in the real animal.
ARK's dimorphodon also has pycnofibers on its wing membranes, which would completely screw up the wing's aerodynamic structure and make it unable to fly. Pegomastax is a typical member of the heterodontosaurs, a group of small, ornithopod dinosaurs which are known for their strong jaws and extremely large, intimidating canines.
The use of these canines are unknown, but its been speculated to most likely be used during in-fights between individials as well as self-defense. Inaccuracies- Pegomastax is a very hard species to point out inaccuracies as the only known fossil is fairly fragmentary. However, one thing that is clear is the size the animal. The pegomastax in ark is oversized, being atleast double the size of the real life counterpart, possibly even bigger.
It was also one of the most popular dinosaurs by the public, only falling off in popularity once other large carnivores such as allosaurus and tyrannosaurus took its place. Despite this well known status, however, there is still very little we know about this dinosaur. It, still to this day, has fairly fragmentary remains, with the most notable ones being the lower jaw, hip, and one of the legs.
It's believed to live a live akin to most other theropods, being the top predator of its environment in Europe. Inaccuracies- ARK's megalosaurus, anatomy wise, is fairly accurate, with meat on its bones and lack of pronated hands. The only issues with the animal is its size and how it sleeps. There's also the fact that a theropod's tail is stiff, used for balanced. So, odds are, it would not be able to curve its tail around its body when it sleeps. Around the size of the largest fish today, the whale shark, the leedsichthys also follows a similar lifestyle.
It was a filterfeeder, following the currents near the surface in search of rich plankton. Also akin to a whale shark, it is doubted that it had many natural predators, with its sheer size making it very difficult to kill. Inaccuracies- The primary inaccuracy with leedsichthys is its sheer size. Over ft in length, ARK's leedsicthys is double the size of the real counterpart.
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The short, stocky, and uniform flippers make it an animal that thrives on acceleration rather than long high speed cruising, making it an excellent ambush hunter. Liopleurodon ate primarily fish and squid, but would happy take any other small animal it could catch. Inaccuracies- If we ignore the hilarious fact that it's a living Charlie the Unicorn referance, the liopleurodon, physically, is quite accurate. It fed on a large variety in prey, from ornithopods to stegosaurs to sauropods. One of the reasons for its prey variety is its teeth. Allosaurs are known for having extremely seratted teeth to cut and slash prey.
This does extreme damage to lighter targets and can bleed out larger ones. Allosaurus's social life is one that has been explored multiple times in pop culture. Alot of media like to depict allosaurus as pack animals, however there is absolute no evidence towards or against this claim. Almost all allosaurus remains are found in natural traps such as mudpits, where allosaurs looking for easy food got stuck into the mud and died, leaving hundreds of allosaurs dead in the same area, which can confuse people for them dieing together when they all just piled on in death overtime.
Inaccuracies- ARK's allosaurus generic problems that almost all of ark's theropods have. Practically all theropods in the game suffer from this, is pronated hands. For those who don't know, theropods were not able to fully move around their wrists like we do. They're hands were mostly restricted to the "clap" pose. So, most theropod's in this game have the palms facing the ground, which would make the theropod break its wrists. It also an unnecesary number of armour appendages and spikes that the real animal didn't have. Finally, like alot of animals in ARK, oversized. It is one of the first true birds to ever evolve, having characteristics of both birds flight, bird bone structure and dinosaurs bony tail and teeth.
It's bone structure is actually almost identical to compsognathus, a close relative that it coexisted with on the European islands. Had it not been for feather preservations it may have been considered the same species. It was an aboreal species that rarely went on the ground, hunting whatever creatures were in the tree canopy. Archaeopteryx was capable of powered flight, though, due to it lacking some proper flight muscles, most likely was not a powerful flyer.
Archaeopteryx is one of the few prehistoric animals that, due to well preserved tissue preservations, we know what color it was. Archaeopteryx was a deep black like a blackbird, making it able to blend in with the shadows of the trees. Inaccuracies- ARK's archaeopteryx is a bit inaccurate. It is once again oversized, being around 6ft long, being over 3x the size of the real animal. It is physically impossible to use it like a parachute. Finally, we know archaeopteryx was pure black, which ARK's version is not. Regardless, Brachiosaurus is a part of the Macronarian Sauropods, which are a sauropod family that is well known for their vertical necks, which would allow them to feed at the tops of trees.
Inaccuracies- ARK's Brachiosaurus is probably one of the most innaccurate sauropods I have ever seen. The animal itself is oversized, it has the incredibly ugly bumps along its body, and the head is absolutely huge in comparison to its body. However, in May of , this proposition was turned on its head with the original "brontosaurus" apatosaurus specimen becoming its own genus again.
It was one of the many sauropod species that roamed Late Jurassic North America, and, despite being the size of a large whale, was only average sized for a sauropod at the time. Inaccuracies- ARK's brontosaurus is obviously not exactly based on the real animal, as the game itself only came out a month after Brontosaurus became a genus again. It has the look of a more generic sauropod rather than a diplodocid. The brontosaurus in ARK is absolutely massive, between and ft long.
That is over double the real size of the animal. The skull is also incorrectly shaped. Compsognathus is one of the earliest of this group known and shows alot of characteristics with birds. Infact, compsognathus and archaeopteryx the first bird are almost identical in terms of bone structure. It was also the smallest dinosaur known until the discoveries in China of bird-like dinosaurs and birds themselves being reclassified as dinosaurs.
Inaccuracies- ARK's Compsognathus is a poor representation of the real animal, with 2 main problems. It sufffers the same pronated hands issue that almost all theropods face, and has the lack of feathers except for the lame hat that's on its head. It would mostly be covered in feathers. These massive animals were one of several sauropod species which roamed North America during the Late Jurassic, with diplodocus being the largest.
Inaccuracies- ARK's diplodocus is Oddly enough, despite being the smallest of ARK's sauropods, it's the closest to its accurate size. It's still a tad oversized but it's pretty good. ARK's diplodocus is a prime example of what people call "shrink-wrapping". If you don't know what it is, it's basically the reconstructing the creature around the bones without spreading out for muscle and fat.
It's especially evident in diplodocus with the neck and head. In general the diplodocus in ARK is starving to death, feed them alot more than the other dinos you have. It's neck is also completely horizontal, which is not correct as most sauropods would have their necks at a "half horizontal half vertical" position.
It was an extremely common marine predator of the Late Jurassic seas, having hundreds of specimens, including ones in the proccess of giving birth to live young. Ichthyosaurs are thought to be deep water hunters, hunting in the twilight and benthic zones for fish and squid. Ichthyosaurus is one of the few prehistoric animals that, due to well preserved tissue preservations, we know what color it was.
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Ichthyosaurs as a whole were almost pure black like sperm whales, which would provide camoflauge where they hunt. Inaccuracies- ARK's ichthyosaurus has 2 prime issues. While for an ichthyosaur its average sized, for ichthyosaurUS it's really large. Realistically it should be too small to ride. It's also anatomically speaking Ichthyosaurus is also known to be pure black, which ARK's ichthyosaurus is not. A common sight in their environment, Kentrosaurus are is well-known for its intimidating weaponry.
Along with a double plates on the front half of its spine, it has a double row of large spikes down the lower half, as well as a pair of spikes on its shoulders. Synopsis- One of the more accurate dinosaurs ARK has offered, the only problems I can spot is the fairly large head, short neck, and over-exaggerative spikes.
Review: Silent parable The Ark is science fiction as sacred text
The size of a bus, it was one of the most well defended herbivores of its late Jurassic home, having 4 one meter long spikes on its tail and bony lumps around its throat. Stegosaurus is also most well known for the 2 rows of plates running along its back. It's been speculated that the most likely use for them was display. Inaccuracies- ARK's stegosaurus, compared to the most of the dinosaurs, is pretty good, though it has a few problems. It also instead of having 2 rows of plates and 2 pairs of spikes, has 3 rows of plates and 3 pairs of spikes.
It's skull is also a tad boxy in comparison to the actual animal. They are perhaps the most successful group of sauropods to ever evolve. They were the longest lasting group, surviving for over 60 million years, and were also one of the largest of their kind. Certain species like argentinosaurus were the largest land animals to ever exist. They were widespread, with their main predators being animals like carcharodontosaurus and giganotosaurus, who specialised in hunting such fatty targets. They managed to outlast their old enemies though and become extinct only with the great mass extinction 66 MYA.
Inaccuracies- As usual, with ARK's titanosaur being a fictional genus, it cannot be judged based on exact characteristics. It shares characteristics with most titanosaurs with the large size and body amor. The only main issue is its size. Baryonyx is known from 2, thought to be subadult, specimens that were incredibly complete. Baryonyx has had some controversy on its scale.
That's because Baryonyx is currently being debated as to whether or not the specimens are subadults. Regardless of the controversy it was still the largest carnivore in its habitat. Despite this size, however, it was not the top predator. Baryonyx was a piscivore, wading in shallow water hunting fish. Inaccuracies- Baryonyx is actually one of the most accurate dinosaurs in ARK, having a fairly spot on appearance. The issues arise from its size and mechanics. While living in the Cretaceous, this Lamprey is no different from the Lamprey that still reside today. The anatomy is practically identical, so it most likely shared the same lifestyle lampreys have.
Lamprey are unique in that they are predatory parasites: Innacuracies- The lamprey already has a design which looks ARK-esc, so it is no suprised the game changed very little from what real lampreys look like. The only thing they did change is the glow tip of the end of the tail, to fit with the Abberation theme. No lamprey has this special feature. A large herbivore, it was widespread throughout a good deal of Europe, being one of the most common animals of its time period. The iguanodon's most distinguishing feature is the pair of spikes on its hands. Their primary use is unkown, but its thought to be used as both self-defense and in in-fighting between individuals.
Inaccuracies- ARK's iguanodon has many physical inaccuracies. First off it is another animal that exhibits shrink-wrapping, being much thinner than what the body would really allow. There is also its hands. Large ornithopods are beleived to have their hands fused akin to hooves. Iguanodon having ALL of its fingers free is not correct.
This species shares all of well known characteristics of the family. It was extremely bird-like, having hollow bones, feathers all over the body for insulation and display, and even wings for better agility. The dromaeosaurs are also known for a single massive sickle claw on each toe. This for a long time was thought to be one massive slicing mechanism for dismembering prey, but recent studies show that the claw was not used for this purpose. The most likely theory is that they attacked prey like modern eagles, latching onto prey feet-first and killing with its teeth, using its wings for balance.
Inaccuracies- I think it's obvious what the main innacuracy for this guy is: It's well known fact for alot of people that raptors were entirely covered in feathers bout time. It also suffers the same pronated hand problem all the theropods have. It is the largest dinosaur confirmed to have feathers, being 9m long and a ton in weight. It is possible this species was a pack animal, as there have been multiple individuals of various ages found together. Innacuracies- Appearance wise, it is nearly spot-on, though it does have 2 major flaws. First off, it is oversized, being larger than a real life tyrannosaurus.
There is also the pronated hands that most theropods in ARK suffer from. Microraptor is one of the first feathered dinosaurs ever discovered alongside other notable species like Sinornithosaurus and Sinornithopteryx. Microraptor is set apart by close relatives due to the clear second pair of wings on its legs. This greatly aids it in gliding from tree to tree and indicates on an extreme reliance on trees for general movement. It is also one of the few extinct animal species we have determined the exact coloration of.
Through the examination of fossilised pigment cells, it has been concluded that microraptor was pure black, but would shine some bright blue when in certain lighting, akin to the Common Grackle. Inaccuracies- ARK's microraptor actually has more similarities to velociraptor than to an actual microraptor. The most obvious difference is coloration, being capable of being in several colors other than black.
It's lifestyle is also drastically different, hunting on the ground instead of in trees akin to Archaeopteryx. Contrary to popular belief however, it is not a crocodile. It is a pholidosaur, a different family of crocodilians. It has a really narrow skull, often being compared to a gharial. Despite looking like a gharial, however, it certainly didn't share the same diet. It had a bite force of 9 tons, over doubt the strength of Tyannosaurus.
This allows it to hunt things such as large dinosaurs. Inaccuracies- Sarcosuchus in ARK is not that bad. It's hard to screw up a crocodile.
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The only main problems is that its a bit oversized and that it has some spikes on the snout that would not be visisble in life. It's skull shape also meant it was not capable of the death roll, which the one in game is capable of doing. It has this very tall but not long crest, which is thought to be used for display.
The most mysterious thing about tapejara is not about its apppearance but its diet. It has long ben thought to have been a fish-eater, but recent evidence is pointing towards a completely different way of life. The beak shows some similarities to modern toucans, which has led to the hypothesis that it actually fed on fruit. Inaccuracies- Tapejara has all the same problems with ARK's pterosaurs, and then some. It is oversized, being around the size of a real life quetzalcoatlus, double the size of the real animal. It is also incapable of carrying a human on its back, let alone three people, as tapejara is lighter than a 5th grader.
Finally, the most signature feature of ARK's tapejara is also one of the least accurate. With the exception of hummingbirds, almost all flying animals cannot fly directly backwards or most other directions besides forward, as its breaking the laws of aerodynamics. A carcharodontosaur, giganotosaurus favorite prey was sauropods. It's teeth was serrated like blades, allowing it to bleed out and rip chunks out of large targets. Inaccuracies- I'm hoping everybody knows the godzilla sized giga isn't accurate.
In real life it was only slightly larger than t-rex, not 3x its size. Besides that it also has the pronated hands and obsurd amount of spikes on the head region. Highlighting the small things in life because they really are the most important things. Mel is such a great character.
At times I just wanted to shake her because she was being so silly. And yet, it made sense in her convoluted way of thinking. It all seemed so real. And I loved her relationship with her parents. Not that it was perfect, or even functional at all time, it was just so realistic and believable.
And that is what I want in my books, real characters who mess up, who make mistakes, and who are sometimes, just plain stupid in their actions. I could maybe argue that Mel should have been a bit more worried about money, and her future. I know I was thinking about that as I read the book. What was she going to do if she dropped out of high school. Was she going to get a job? But that was never really brought up, which is understandable in one way.
And she is still a kid in many many ways. And then there is Pug. He was just wonderful. He was solid and dependable and just nice and lovely. And you could so see why Mel fell in love with him. I mean, in comparison to the likes of Edward in the Twilight series, well, there is no comparison. But Pug… ah, just read the book. Never had any interest in becoming a mother.
So when I tell you that reading this at one point I actually thought, hmmm having a baby sounds pretty cool will tell you just how well written this book is. Not that I thought that for long, I mean, nope. But it is a perfect illustration of what good fiction does, it gives you an alternate viewpoint from your own. Feb 12, Lynley rated it liked it Shelves: This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here.
The issue is dealt with in realistic fashion, with authentic sounding people. That said, much dialogue is written phonetically, which seems to have dated the book unnecessarily. There are few novels written about this sort of girl. You've got heaps of YA fiction about middle class girls and really, really downtrodden girls, but there's a whole group of girls who fit somewhere in between.
I think this girl is one of those. Mel is her own person, unafraid of speaking her mind: Go away and leave me alone. I like Mel because she has a grip on reality, and a sense of the prevailing double standards: If we're looking for sluts, the guys re the worst sluts, if half the stories they tell are true, of their endurance, repeat performances, girls and women they've 'had' as if it were a con as well as a conquest.
I was never quite sure what to do when those stories were doing the rounds - smile, or laugh? But then, who doesn't face a little upheaval when a new baby arrives on the scene, whether you're seventeen or forty? In many ways, a young woman is far better equipped for childbirth than older parents, despite their accumulation of wealth. Reading this book wasn't a 'pleasant' journey, and I was glad to finish it, but then I doubt Margo Lanagan really aims for dolphins and ponies in her work. This is a book to provoke discussion about the issues of babies born to young mothers, and bullying and class divisions and abortion and all of those other touchy subjects.
The characters felt real. And that's all I could ever ask for. Jun 13, Sarah rated it really liked it. I was hesitant on this one. I loved Margo Lanagan from her more fantasy-based novels Tender Morsels, etc. But I worried that a story about a more pedestrian topic might not work in her hand, that I might be let down. I needn't have worried. I have a friend I send good quotes to, from books I'm in the middle of, to say, "Hey look, this one is seriously good!
This whole, "Loved the author in one genre, lost them in another," thing happened for me with Melina Marchetta. Finnikin of the Rock I adored.
Her other novels, like Saving Francesca? In fact I was so let down by her other books I couldn't enjoy the Finnikin sequel. So you see, when I heard Margo Lanagan had written a book about teen pregnancy, my first thought was, "Oh man, I can't have that be terrible and then ruin Lanagan for me. I honestly had this for weeks before I touched it, even though Tender Morsels and Rollrock left me wanting more more more. Oct 26, Laura rated it liked it Shelves: This is a sweet little story. I really enjoyed a lot of things about it. For one thing, it has a very visceral, real description of pregnancy and the first few months with a baby.
I have a few issues with it, like the places where suddenly the narrator was addressing "you" instead of "he" or "she" - there was no explanation and it seemed more like an editing error than a stylis This is a sweet little story. I have a few issues with it, like the places where suddenly the narrator was addressing "you" instead of "he" or "she" - there was no explanation and it seemed more like an editing error than a stylistic choice. If you pick this up because you liked the magical realism of Lanagan's other books like Tender Morsels or The Brides of Rollrock Island you might be disappointed, though - this one is set entirely in the real world, although it still has the gorgeous descriptions of her other books.
Nov 11, Danigerous rated it it was ok Shelves: As the picture begins to come into focus, they realize they have just seven days to find the Ark before its secret is used to wipe out civilization once again. Your Cart items Cart total. Buy from another retailer. Novelist Boyd Morrison's tips for writers. Free eBook available to NEW subscribers only. Must redeem within 90 days. See full terms and conditions and this month's choices.
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The suggested questions are intended to help your reading group find new and interesting angles and topics for your discussion. We hope that these ideas will enrich your conversation and increase your enjoyment of the book. Introduction When archaeologist Hasad Arvadi's quest to uncover the truth and power behind one of the Old Testament's most mysterious artifacts, Noah's Ark, ends in his brutal murder, his daughter Dilara assembles a team of super-engineers to help connect the dots and pick up the pieces.
Meanwhile, mastermind Sebastian Ulric has unearthed the secrets behind what caused the Genesis catastrophe, and is ready to cleanse the world once again; only this time, he plans to decide who lives—and who dies. Dilara, along with engineer Tyler Locke and his best friend, former Army Ranger and pro-wrestler Grant Westfield, begin a frantic quest to save humanity.
But they only have seven days to do it.