Corruption and Democracy in Latin America (Pitt Latin American Series)

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Madero's forces defeated the federal army in early , assumed temporary control of the government and won a second election later on November 6, Madero undertook moderate reforms to implement greater democracy in the political system but failed to satisfy many of the regional leaders in what had become a revolutionary situation.

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Madero's failure to address agrarian claims led Zapata to break with Madero and resume the revolution. Other revolutionary leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Venustiano Carranza continued to militarily oppose the federal government, now under Huerta's control. Allies Zapata and Villa took Mexico City in March , but found themselves outside of their elements in the capital and withdrew to their respective bastions. This allowed Carranza to assume control of the central government.

The Mexican Constitution of , still the current constitution, was proclaimed but initially little enforced. The efforts against the other revolutionary leaders continued. Zapata was assassinated on April 10, Finally in Villa was also assassinated. Under the Constitution a liberal government is implemented but some of the aspirations of the working and rural classes remained unfulfilled.

See also, Agrarian land reform in Mexico. Sports became increasingly popular, drawing enthusiastic fans to large stadia. In Brazil, however, sporting and political rivalries slowed progress as opposing factions fought to control of international sport. The Great Depression posed a great challenge to the region. The collapse of the world economy meant that the demand for raw materials drastically declined, undermining many of the economies of Latin America. Intellectuals and government leaders in Latin America turned their backs on the older economic policies and turned toward import substitution industrialization.

The goal was to create self-sufficient economies, which would have their own industrial sectors and large middle classes and which would be immune to the ups and downs of the global economy. Despite the potential threats to United States commercial interests, the Roosevelt administration — understood that the United States could not wholly oppose import substitution. Roosevelt implemented a Good Neighbor policy and allowed the nationalization of some American companies in Latin America.

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The Platt Amendment was also repealed, freeing Cuba from legal and official interference of the United States in its politics. In the postwar period, the expansion of communism became the greatest political issue for both the United States and governments in the region. Following the Costa Rica Civil War , the nation established a new constitution and was recognized as the first legitimate democracy in Latin America [20] However, the new Costa Rican government, which now was constitutionally required to ban the presence of a standing military, did not seek regional influence and was distracted further by conflicts with neighboring Nicaragua.

Several socialist and communist insurgencies broke out in Latin America throughout the entire twentieth century, but the most successful one was in Cuba. The Cuban Revolution was led by Fidel Castro against the regime of Fulgencio Batista , who since was the principal autocrat in Cuba.

Despite the repeal of the Platt Amendment, the United States still had considerable influence in Cuba, both in politics and in everyday life. In fact Cuba had a reputation of being the "brothel of the United States," a place where Americans could find all sorts of licit and illicit pleasures, provided they had the cash. Despite having the socially advanced constitution of , Cuba was plagued with corruption and the interruption of constitutional rule by autocrats like Batista. Batista began his final turn as the head of the government in a coup.

The coalition that formed under the revolutionaries hoped to restore the constitution, reestablish a democratic state and free Cuba from the American influence. The revolutionaries succeeded in toppling Batista on January 1, Castro, who initially declared himself as a non-socialist, initiated a program of agrarian reforms and nationalizations in May , which alienated the Eisenhower administration —61 and resulted in the United States breaking of diplomatic relations, freezing Cuban assets in the United States and placing an embargo on the nation in The Kennedy administration — authorized the funding and support of an invasion of Cuba by exiles.

The invasion failed and radicalized the revolutionary government's position. Cuba officially proclaimed itself socialist and openly became an ally of the Soviet Union. The military collaboration between Cuba and the Soviet Union, which included the placement of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis of October This was further fueled by Cuban and United States intervention which led to a political polarization.

Most South American countries were in some periods ruled by military dictatorships that were supported by the United States of America. Around the s, the regimes of the Southern Cone collaborated in Operation Condor killing many leftist dissidents, including some urban guerrillas. The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, DC-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund IMF , World Bank , and the US Treasury Department during the s and '90s.

In recent years, several Latin American countries led by socialist or other left wing governments—including Argentina and Venezuela—have campaigned for and to some degree adopted policies contrary to the Washington Consensus set of policies. Other Latin counties with governments of the left, including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies.

Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik , who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies. The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty.

Since the s, or s in some countries, left-wing political parties have risen to power. The conservative wave Portuguese: In Brazil, it began roughly around the time Dilma Rousseff , in a tight election, won the presidential election , kicking off the fourth term of the Workers' Party in the highest position of government. The subsequent economic crisis of and investigations of corruption scandals led to a right-wing movement that sought to rescue ideas from economic liberalism and conservatism in opposition to left-wing policies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. Spanish empire and Historiography of Colonial Spanish America. Latin American wars of independence. History of the Americas.

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      Pitt Latin American series. English View all editions and formats Summary: Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private.

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      Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Details Additional Physical Format: Internet resource Document Type: Offers an analysis of factors that differentiate Latin American corruption from that of other regions. This title analyses key topics, including: Publisher Synopsis "This volume makes an important contribution to our understanding of the causes, consequences, and scope of corruption. User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.

      Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: Democracy -- Latin America. Latin America -- Politics and government -- Democracy. Politics and government Latin America. User lists with this item 5 Chile 14 items by annay updated Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Morris and Charles H. Blake and Stephen D.

      Home About Help Search. Keywords Cosmopolitanism Crisis Democracy Economic crisis Europe Greece Italy Neoliberalism Participation Political Parties Political participation Social Movements activism crisis democracy economic crisis neoliberalism participation protest resilience social movements. Article Tools Print this article. How to cite item. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required.

      Corruption and Democracy in Latin America

      Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. Davide Grassi , Vincenzo Memoli. Abstract Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period in 14 Latin American countries.